Judaism #5

Call of Abraham (both Jews and Arabs) 2000 B.C.

Statement of Faith 12th Century

Moses Maimonides (Spanish Jew)

Creed 1-13

1 Creator                                7 Moses chief prophet

2 He alone is God                    8 Torah is in our posession

3 God is spirit                                   9 no other law than Torah

4 first and last                                   10 God omniscience

5 pray only to God                     11 God rewards keeper of commandments

6 words of the prophets are true  12 comingof Messiah

13 revival of dead

Holy Days

Sabbath, Passover, Shabuot(feast of weeks leading up to passover)

Rosh Hashanah (New Year), Yom Kippur (day of atonment)

Sukkoth (booth, tabernacles), Hanukkah

Three branches, Orthodox, Conservative(1918), Reform

Torah - first 5 books of Bible

A.D. 200 Mishnah - 1,000 pages of instructions

A.D. 500 Talmud 36 volumns based on the Mishnah

Haggadah ( Torah, Mishnah, Talmud)


Islam #2


Islam - to submit

Muslim - the one who submits

(Muslim, Moslem) - Middle East, Asia, North Africa, fastest growing religion

Muhammad born around 570 A.D. in Mecca in Arabia, around 40 had first vision, these revelations are recorded in the Qur’an (Koran), received visions for 22 years

Moved from Mecca to Medina “City of the Prophet” because of ostracism, returned and conquered Mecca.

Three sects: Sunnis, Shi’a, Sufis (“whirling Dervish”)


Faith and Duty

Five Articles of Faith

1 God- There is not God but Allah

2. Angels - Gabriel appeared to Muhammad

3. Scripture (1) Torah (2) Psalms (3) Gospel of Jesus (4) Qur’an (Arabic for recite)- first three books have been corrupted by Jews and Christians

4. Prophets - Muhammad is the last and greatest

5 Last Days

Five Pillars of Faith

1. The Creed - There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah

2. Prayer (Salat) 5 times a day facing Mecca

3. Almsgiving

4. Fasting (Ramadan)

5. The Pilgrimage

Sixth religious duty - Jihad - Holy War


Hinduism #3

One of the oldest religions, India, one of most complex, diverse beliefs

World is not important

Elaborate system for salvationl


Brahman, the eternal Trimutri -

Brahma - Creator, Vishnu - Preserver, Shiva-Destroyer

Submission to fate

The Caste System

The Law of Karma




Dharma, the law of Moral Order


Scriptures 1400B.C.-500A.D. veda=knowledge

Ramayana - epic tale of India 24,000 couplets based on life of Rama

Mahabharate - epic tale, 100,000 verses (contains Ghagavad Gita)

Three ways of salvation (1) way of knowledge (2) devotion (3) works

Mohandas Gandhi: “If God could have sons, all of us were his sons, If Jesus was like God ... then all men were like God and could be God himself!”


Buddhism #4

Began 500 B.C. in India   

Number of outcasts was continuing to grow. Endless cycle of births, deaths and rebirths was viewed with dread.

Buddha’s theory of the “Middle Way” - spiritual path to salvation

Four Noble Truths

1. Suffering is universal 2. The cause of suffering is craving (selfish desire) 3. The cure for suffering is to eliminate craving 4.Eliminate craving by following the Middle Way 8-fold path

Eight Fold Path for Right Living

1 viewpoint 2 aspiration 3 speech 4 behavior 5 occupation 6 effort 7 mindfulness 8 meditation


Siddhartha Gautama 560B.C. (family name Gautama, given name Siddhartha)

Son of a ruler - wanted to see the outside world, father ordered the streets cleared but Siddhartha still saw “the four passing sights”, decrepit old man, sick man, dead man, tranquil monk begging for food

Great Renunciation - became beggar

meditating beneath fig tree - reached nirvana, enlightened one-Buddha

Theravada Buddhism - India, Mahayana Buddhism (China, Japan)

5 precepts:

1 kill no living thing (including insects)

2 do not steal

3 do not commit adultery

4 tell no lies

5 do not drink intoxicants or take drugs

others for monks nad nuns

6 eat moderately and only at appointed time

7 avoid that which excites the senses

8 do not wear adornments (including perfume)

9 do not sleep in luxurious beds

10 accept no silver or gold


Scriptures (3 baskets)

Vinaya Pitaka (discipiline - rules for the higher class)

Sutta Pitaka (teaching - of the Buddha)

Abidhamma (metaphysical - theology)

Nichiren Soshu Buddhism (Japan)

Zen Buddhism (Chinese Zen=meditation)





Optimistic humanism

Confucius born Chiu King 550 B.C. contemporary with Buddha immediately before Socrates and Plato.

Eventually deified by his followers

Sources (1) The Book of Changes (I Ching) (2) The Book of Annals (Shu K’ing) history of five preceding dynasties (3) The Book of Poetry (Shih Ching) (4) The Book of Ceremonies (Li Chi) (5) The Annals of Spring and Autumn (Ch’un Ch’iu) commentary on evens of the state of Lu at Confucius’s time



1 Jen - golden rule (Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire) backwards from Christianity

2 Chun-tzu - true manhood

3 Cheng-ming- rectification of names, everyone act his part king=king

4 Te- power

5 Li - propriety , reverence, courtesy, ritual

6 Wen - arts of peace, music, poetry and art

Not really a religion - ethical system




National religion of Japan - Nippon name of their country

Japan is the country of the Gods and her inhabitants are the descendants of Gods, between the Japenese people and the other nations there is a differnece of kind rather than degree.

The Mikado is the true Son of Heaven

Immeasurable superiority to the other natives of the world

Shinto (shen-tao) “the way of the gods”

Kami - sacred power in animate and inanimate objects

Worship at the numerous shrines covering the country of Japan